Charles William Lloyd Tuckey was initiated into the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn at its Isis-Urania temple in London on 21 July 1894, taking the Latin motto ‘Stant robora vires’. Charles Franks and Ethel Weltch were initiated during the same ritual and may have been acquainted with him already. Charles doesn’t seem to have taken his initiation any further, and he resigned from the Order in November 1895.
Although it’s pretty long, this is still one of my short biographies. I could have written much more about Charles Lloyd Tuckey but I don’t really feel qualified to discuss the careers of the GD’s doctors. Perhaps someone reading this introduction to him will be inspired to do more.
SMALL UPDATE FEBRUARY 2017
Gordon Bates is doing a PhD on Victorian Medical Hypnotism. I’m glad to say that it will contain a section on Charles Lloyd Tuckey. Gordon contacted me to say that he was having trouble accessing the Tuckey family history, so in the Family Background section below I’ve described an easier way to find it.
EVEN SMALLER UPDATE MAY 2017
Charles Lloyd Tuckey would have been pleased to find that there is now scientific evidence that hypnosis is genuine. Research at the Sackler Centre for Consciousness Science, in Brighton, has confirmed that people in a hypnotised state really are carrying out tasks involuntarily - they are not just trying to please the hypnotist. I read this news in the New Scientist on 1 April 2017 and thought it might be an April Fool’s joke. But the results been published in Psychological Science volumer 28 number 5, 2017 beforehand: see an abstract at http://doi.org/b4sh
My basic sources for any GD member are in a section at the end of the file. Supplementary sources for this particular member are listed at the end of each section.
This is what I have found on CHARLES WILLIAM LLOYD TUCKEY.
IN THE GD
Charles Tuckey was acquainted with so many people who were members of the GD that it’s surprising that his name wasn’t put forward for initiation earlier. It seems that the GD accepted Charles for initiation with rather more enthusiasm than he showed about being a member. He was a qualified doctor who used hypnotherapy to treat his patients, and had written articles about its use for the non-medical press. In the late 1880s and early 1890s he was one of the many medical professionals who were trying to discover how hypnosis worked, and what exactly it was. As part of that exploration, he joined a variety of alternative societies and groups. In the end, though, he decided that scientific evidence for the claims being made by practitioners of magic and spiritualism was the most important thing to him as a medical professional: the Society for Psychical Research was the group he stayed a member of for longest.
Though George Frederick Rogers knew several other GD members including William Wynn Westcott, it might have been Charles who in put forward Rogers’ name for initiation, in 1895.
ANY OTHER ESOTERIC INTERESTS?
During the early and mid-1890s, yes.
SOCIETY FOR PSYCHICAL RESEARCH
Charles joined this Society in 1889. You had to be elected to be a member, and it’s likely that his name was suggested to the governing Council by George Frederick Rogers, a member since 1885. In persuading Charles to join the Society, Dr Rogers might have mentioned that Professor Dr A A Liébault of Nancy’s name was on the list of the Society’s corresponding members. The Professor was well-known for his use of hypnosis as a medical tool and Charles had spent several weeks in Nancy with him, observing how he used it with patients.
Charles became a very committed member of the Society, and kept up an interest in its activities even in his last few years, when his physical health was deteriorating. He was a member of its Hypnotic Committee in the early 1890s and its Library Committee until 1917; and regularly reviewed books for its Journal. In 1897 he was elected to the Society’s Council - Dr Rogers was also a member - and served on it until 1922 when he could no longer get to London for its meetings.
Charles was a freemason, though he kept his involvement to a modest level, being a member of two lodges only and not achieving rank within the United Grand Lodge of England. He may not have been very active after 1900, though that’s more difficult to ascertain.
Though I haven’t found any evidence that Charles’ father was ever a freemason, his grandfather Davys Tuckey was one in Ireland in the mid to late 19th century; and various other members of the wider Tuckey clan were in England. An S D Tuckey was a member of Imperial Lodge number 1694 in the years after it was founded in 1877. I don’t know how close a relation to Charles this man was, but it might have been through him that Charles was initiated into the lodge, in the late 1880s or early 1890s (I haven’t been able to discover the exact date). When he joined Imperial Lodge 1694, its meetings were held in Chelsea, though in 1897 they were moved to the Holborn Restaurant in WC2 near the UGLE headquarters. Once initiated, Charles was willing to be elected onto the conveyor-belt of offices which made its way (one year in each office) upwards towards a year as the lodge’s most senior official, its Worshipful Master. As a Senior Warden died during his year of office, Charles’ time on the conveyor-belt was one year shorter than he would have expected when he put himself forward for its most junior office. He was installed as WM in November 1898 and served until the following November, 1899. He did not join the lodge’s Chapter, consecrated 1894. As WM-elect he was present at the meeting (October 1898) which founded the lodge’s lodge of instruction; though he doesn’t seem to have been an active member of it. And the lodge history suggests that he may have let his lodge membership drop in the years after he served as WM: the lodge history names the men who served the lodge longest and with most dedication, and Charles wasn’t one of them.
His membership of Imperial Lodge 1694 made Charles eligible to become a member of two other freemasonry groupings - a lodge, and a lodge-like order.
The lodge was Quatuor Coronati, number 2076, founded in the 1880s as a forum for research into the history, symbolism and rituals of freemasonry. Many freemasons who also became GD members were prominent members of this lodge in the 1890s, and three served as WM in that decade - William Wynn Westcott, Edward Macbean, and Sydney Turner Klein. The lodge’s rules allowed for only 40 members at any time, but the plan had always been to have a very large corresponding membership, who received the lodge’s journal Ars Quatuor Coronati and were welcome at meetings, though not allowed to stand for office. Charles became a corresponding member in May 1892, and around the time he was also in the GD he went to some meetings of Quatuor Coronati 2076. The lodge held six meetings a year and they all followed a similar pattern: lodge business; followed by a member reading a paper, which was discussed by those present (and later published in the magazine); and then socialising, often around a display of freemasonry items brought by a member. The lodge occasionally held social events, and Charles went to the conversazione at which it celebrated its tenth anniversary. It was held on 28 November 1895 at the King’s Hall of the Holborn Restaurant; around the time Charles resigned from the GD. This was one of those rare freemasonry events to which women were invited, and Charles took his sister Deborah Tuckey. He was never a full member of Quatuor Coronati 2076 however, and by 1900 he was no longer a corresponding member.
The lodge-like grouping Charles joined was Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia (SRIA), which was not exactly a freemasons’ lodge although only freemasons could join it. Like Quatuor Coronati lodge 2076, the SRIA focused on the esoteric side of freemasonry; and as its name suggests, it was particularly interested in the contributions rosicrucian legends had made and could make to freemasonry. The first GD rituals were rosicrucian ones and many early members of the GD joined the Order on that understanding; not only SRIA members though many SRIA members were initiated into the GD. William Wynn Westcott was an important member of SRIA as well as of Quatuor Coronati 2076; in 1892, he was appointed SRIA’s Supreme Magus, an appointment which was for life.
Charles became a member of SRIA at the meeting of its Metropolitan College held on 11 January 1894; that is, six months before he was initiated into the GD. SRIA meetings were organised exactly like Quatuor Coronati 2076 ones, and Charles’ first meeting was probably carefully chosen - his friend from the Society for Psychical Research, George Rogers, read a paper that evening on Mesmerism. Mesmerism was something which Charles was very interested in from a professional point of view, and he’d probably had many talks with Dr Rogers on the subject. After the paper had been read, Charles joined in the discussion of it at the SRIA meeting. Charles lasted longer as a member of SRIA than he did as a member of the GD but at SRIA’s meeting in July 1897, his resignation was read out. George Frederick Rogers continued to be an active member of SRIA into the 1920s.
It’s always difficult to find out whether GD members were spiritualists: it was a rather home- or district-based pursuit whose records have not usually survived if they existed in the first place. However, in the 1890s, the London Spiritualist Alliance was an umbrella organisation for spiritualists in and around London. It organised lectures and social events and, in 1890, took over the finances of the occult weekly magazine Light, which subsequently published accounts of LSA meetings and articles by some of its members. A sub-group of GD members had been offered initiation into the Order through contacts made in the LSA.
Looking at issues of Light published from 1889 to 1900, I spotted Charles’ name at one LSA function - one only. On 22 January 1894, he went to one of the LSA’s conversaziones to hear a talk on Identity of Spirit. After the talk and the discussion were over, there was a chance to socialise and he may have passed the time with some of the GD members who were there: Alice Gordon; Arthur Lovell; Catherine Passingham (an acquaintance of George Rogers); Constance Wilde; Henry, Margaret and Charlotte Wright; and - possibly - Sophia Moffat.
Theosophy was one field of esoteric study which Charles never got involved with. Of course, he could have read some books on the subject, but even in the early 1890s, when interest in the subject was at its height in England, he never joined the Theosophical Society.
In 1893 W T Stead (the crusading journalist) started to publish a new occult magazine, Borderlands. In 1894 Stead wrote to a number of people hoping for their support, including Charles. Charles wrote back agreeing that the public discussion of paranormal phenomena was a good idea and hoping that the magazine would shed the light of science on them. He urged Stead to authenticate any evidence of such phenomena that was submitted to him, and to study it with care - meaning, that Stead should be careful not to publish claims that couldn’t be verified. I’m sure Stead was hoping for more than that from Charles, but I think he didn’t get it. Charles’ name doesn’t appear in a list of subscribers to Borderland published in 1895. Some people on the list chose to remain anonymous, but I don’t see why Charles should have insisted his name not be disclosed, as his interest in hypnotism was already so well known.
An account of a meeting in June 1893 at the Society for Psychical Research seems to show that Charles was trying to find out what altered states of consciousness were, by taking drugs. At the meeting, Professor W Ramsay described what he had experienced when he had dosed himself with chloroform. The account of the discussion afterwards reads as if Charles was speaking with personal experience of taking chloroform, and ether as well - two drugs being used at that time as anaesthetics. He was also able to report that Professor Ramsay’s sensations under the chloroform - of being very receptive to all ideas - sounded more like the effect of taking Indian hemp or hashish. Charles may have been taking the hemp and hashish as drugs prescribed for him (or self-prescribed) for his own poor health.
Charles carried out his own experiments into hypnotism and its effects. They were probably an on-going programme in his life, when he could spare the time. He also investigated other “higher phenomena”; probably through the Society for Psychical Research, but the chance of making more such investigations must have been part of the reason why he had joined the GD. His researches convinced him that thought transference at least was real, not a hoax. He concluded that thought transference explained a large proportion of the effects that spiritualists and other occultists believed to be evidence of clairvoyance. That did not mean, however, that he thought transference was something occult; on the contrary, he decided it could be explained by scientific means. Hypnotism, too, was not a supernatural phenomenon, Charles decided. Science and medicine could explain what it was and how it worked; there was no need for the involvement of communications from the dead or wisdom transmitted to certain humans by entities on other planes.
There’s plenty of evidence that Charles kept up with European research into his subject; so he may also have been influenced in reaching his decision in favour of science, by the developing theories of Sigmund Freud. Freud’s early publications were known (in German at least) to members of the Society for Psychical Research by 1893. In 1892, Freud had published A Case of Successful Treatment by Hypnotism.
Database of the collections at the Freemasons’ Library, accessible online at
www.freemasonry.london.museum/catalogue.php. Charles doesn’t appear on the database, which inevitably tends to favour those men who were very active and very senior freemasons.
To use the FML’s online, digitised database of freemasonry journals, go to www.freemasonry.london/museum
Take the option ‘resources’; then ‘Masonic periodicals online’. The FML has only digitised magazines to 1900 so far. If you want to search any later year, you’ll need to go to the Library in WC2.
The Freemason May 1877 p8 published a long account of a meeting during a Royal visit to Ireland, in connection with the Masonic Orphan Schools in Dublin. Davys Tuckey is a long way down the list of freemasons who were present; and with no indication of which lodge he was representing. He didn’t, at this time, hold national rank of any kind.
Some basic details of Imperial Lodge 1694 can be seen at www.hrionline.ac.uk the website of Lane’s Masonic Records.
Imperial Lodge no. 1694. Centenary Booklet 1877-1977. No author’s name is printed, but on p2 the acknowledgements are by “EWS” who, on p1, is identified as E W Savory, the current Lodge secretary. Neither Charles nor S D Tuckey appear in Savory’s account of the lodge’s history; suggesting that they were not ever important figures in it. Neither of them were named amongst the founders of the lodge’s Chapter either. On pp36-37 Charles appears in the list of the lodge’s WM’s but isn’t listed as having been its secretary or treasurer; nor is S D Tuckey so perhaps he only served for a short time. History of the lodge’s chapter: pp43-44.
A note about freemasonry magazines as sources: run with very few staff, they were dependent on lodge officers sending in accounts of meetings. During the 1890s, for example, Imperial Lodge 1694 was holding its regular five meetings per year but reports of only a few were published, usually those of the meeting at which the new WM was installed.
Freemasons’ Chronicle of March 1896 p7 an account of a meeting of Imperial Lodge 1694 in February 1896 states that S D Tuckey was the lodge secretary at this time.
The Freemason November 1891 p8 Charles was at Imperial Lodge 1694's installation meeting in October 1891 at a hotel at 24 Victoria Street London.
The Freemason December 1893 p9 by 1893 Imperial Lodge 1694's meetings had moved to Cloots’ Restaurant. Charles was the last in the list of named members in the report. As usual, the meeting and installation process were followed by a dinner.
Freemasons’ Chronicle October 1898 p11 Imperial Lodge 1694 had moved its meeting-place again, to the Pier Hotel Chelsea. This report is of a special meeting held to inaugurate the lodge’s Lodge of Instruction. Charles was there but only as the lodge’s WM-elect.
QUATUOR CORONATI 2076
The Freemason July 1892 p15 report on the lodge’s annual St John festival meet4ing, on 24 June. This was the first lodge meeting that Charles attended.
The Freemason regularly reported on the meetings of Quatuor Coronati lodge 2076. Charles attended some meetings but not very many, and none after 1896. He appears in the list of those present in the following issues:
The Freemason 1894 January issue p6; March issue p5; May issue p9.
The Freemason 1895 July issue p15.
The Freemason March 1896 p3; November 1896 p4.
Ars Quatuor Coronati volume VII 1894 p36 - Charles attended the meeting of Friday 5 January 1894 at which GD member Frederick Crowe gave a talk on Continental Lodge Jewels and Medals. Crowe was a well-known collector of freemasonry regalia. At the end of the volume, on unnumbered pages: the list of Corresponding members includes Dr Lloyd Tuckey of 33 Green Street; joining date May 1892.
Ars Quatuor Coronati 2076 volume VIII 1895 p1 report on the 10th-anniversary Conversazione. Other GD and lodge members who were there included Robert Palmer-Thomas, William Wynn Westcott, Frank Tate Ellis and Frederick W Wright.
Ars Quatuor Coronati 2076 volume XIII 1900: Charles is no longer in the corresponding members list.
SOCIETAS ROSICRUCIANA IN ANGLIA
Transactions of Societas Rosicruciana Metropolitan College 1893-94 p5-6 and 1897-98 p3.
SOCIETY FOR PSYCHICAL RESEARCH
Journal of the Society for Psychical Research volume 2 1885-86. Published by the Society and distributed to members only - it wasn’t for sale to the public. On p57 new members included George Frederick Rogers of Caius College Cambridge; p88 the Society already had some works by Liébault in its library.
Journal of the Society for Psychical Research volume 4 1889-90. Published by the Society at its offices at 19 Buckingham Street Adelphi. On p49 April 1889, the list of new members includes C Lloyd Tuckey MD of 14 Green Street Grosvenor Square. On p203 confirmation that all members had to be elected, even associate and corresponding ones.
Definitely the Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, report on the meeting of the Society held on 2 June 1893. However, I was sent this information in an email and haven’t been able to discover which page the report was on. Professor W Ramsay’s talk was: Experiments with Anaesthetics. Edward Maitland was also at the meeting and described experiments with chloroform undertaken by a woman doctor. The report of the meeting didn’t name the doctor but gave enough information about her to make it very clear that Anna Bonus Kingsford was meant; Dr Kingsford combined practising medicine with being a mystic. She interpreted what she experienced while under chloroform as confirmation of her belief in the existence of four planes of being: spiritual; psychic; astral/magnetic’ and physical/material. Not conclusions Charles agreed with.
Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research volume 11 1895 p604, p623 Charles Tuckey as a full member, now at 33 Green Street.
Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research volume 15 1900-01 p103 a review by Charles Tuckey of Dr J M Creed’s My Experience of Hypnotic Suggestion as a Therapeutic Agent. On p485 a list of current Council members includes both Charles and George Frederick Rogers. On p507 a third new address for Charles although it may just be the result of street renumbering by the Post Office: 88 Park Street.
Journal of the Society for Psychical Research volumes 22-23 1925 p115 a short announcement of Charles Tuckey’s death “on August 12th, 1925". On p22 of the Journal’s October 1925 issue: an obituary, focusing on his varied work for the Society; and a note that Charles had left the Society £50 in his Will. There was also an appreciation by Dr Arthur Percy Allan (known as Percy) a fellow hypnotherapist and member of the Society, who had been a friend of Charles since his days as an undergraduate at Guy’s Hospital in the late 1880s/early 1890s.
References to Charles’ own poor health: the obituary above. Two more elliptical ones:
The Monthly Homoeopathic Review 1882 p326 Homoeopathy in Spain.
Psycho-therapeutics, or Treatment by Sleep and Suggestion by C Lloyd Tuckey MD. London: Baillière Tindall and Cox 1889: Chapter 1 p3 mentions a trip he made to Jamaica.
Spain and the West Indies are places that you might go if you were an enthusiastic traveller with a yen for rather out-of-the-way destinations; but you might also go to them in search of a warmer climate. A warm climate, especially warm winters, was a typical prescription for patients in poor health who could afford to pay for it.
Light: A Journal of Psychical Occult and Mystical Research volume 9 January-December 1889. Published London: Eclectic Publishing Co Ltd of 2 Duke St Adelphi. Just noting here that issue number 451 published Saturday 24 August 1889, mentioned an attempt to establish a London Hypnotic Society to encourage the use of hypnotherapy in healing. I couldn’t see any other reference to such a Society but it does illustrate that the idea of hypnotism as an aid to medical treatment was around at the time.
Light: A Journal of Psychical, Occult and Mystical Research volume 14 number 681 Saturday 27 January 1894 p38. I’m not sure of the identification of the guest named only as “Miss Moffat”. Two Miss Moffats were members of the GD: Sophia and her younger sister Kate.
Borderland: A Quarterly Review and Index volume 1 1894. Editor W T Stead; editorial address 18 Pall Mall East. Publishing office 125 Fleet Street: p20.
Borderland: A Quarterly Review and Index volume 2 1895. Volume 2 pp 88-92: list of member/subscribers. On pp25-32 an article by a writer identified only as ‘X’: The New Witchcraft: the Dangers and Uses of Hypnotism - nicely illustrating the kind of prejudice Charles was up against in his attempts to establish hypnosis as a medical tool.
Borderland: A Quarterly Rvw and Index. Editor W T Stead Volume 4 covers January 1897 to the last ever issue, October 1897. On p390 Stead said that the magazine’s first issue had been published in July 1893; but the British Library only had issues from 1894.
Theosophical Society Membership Registers 1889-1901.
Just noting here that Professor Liébault’s work was known to members of the TS. Colonel Olcott visited him in 1891: see
Old Diary Leaves: the True History of the Theosophical Society by Henry Steel Olcott. Madras: Theosophical Publishing House. Volume 4 published 1931 and covering 1887-92. Pp393, p399-404.
Charles’ conclusions about hypnotism and the occult: see the PUBLICATIONS section but particularly Occult Review editor Ralph Shirley. Published London: William Rider and Son Ltd, 164 Aldersgate St EC; and Phillip Welby of Henrietta St WC. Volume 1 number 2, issue of February 1905 p51-56: Charles’ article Some Phases of Hypnotism. In this article, Charles criticises the work of Dr Charcot and others at the Salpiètre mental institution in Paris. Charles didn’t think that “hysterical” women were suitable subjects for experiments in hypnotism; his own research had suggested that Oxford and Cambridge undergraduates were better!
In the last years of the first World War Charles’ younger brother, Rev James Grove White Tuckey, compiled a pedigree of the Tuckey family. Rev James was able to trace them as far back as a Thomas Tuckey of Worcestershire, whose son Timothy moved to Cork in 1657. In the following three centuries the Tuckeys were prominent businessmen, Church of England clerics, and doctors in Cork, Waterford and later Dublin. They married into other professional families and into the landed gentry, creating a web of relations-by-marriage that stretched all over the southern-most counties of Ireland. Charles Tuckey was related to GD member Irene Augusta Lloyd through this clan-like cousin-hood, probably several times over.
Burke’s Landed Gentry of Ireland 1863 and subsequently in 1871 issue p803: the Lloyd family of Lloydsborough and Cranagh/Cranna co Tipperary; who claimed descent from the Welsh family Lloyd of Bodidris. I got completely lost in this! - trying to tie down exactly how Irene Lloyd and Charles Tuckey were related. I did manage to establish to my own satisfaction that they definitely had a common ancestor in the 18th-century John Lloyd of Lloydsborough and his wife Mary née Otway.
Rev James Tuckey’s wide-ranging family pedigree can be read online at www.corkpastandpresent.ie IF you’ve got time to spare to find it! It’s much easier to do what I was doing when I came across it: googling using Tuckey + pedigree. Then, it’s more or less the first response in the queue. The Rev James’ original article was published in the Journal of the Cork Historical and Archaeological Society, issue of 1919. For Colonel James Grove White of Kilbyrne, after whom the Rev James Tuckey seems to have been named, see p247. Some members of the Grove White family also appear in www.thepeerage.com.
CHARLES CAULFIELD TUCKEY of Doneraile, father of the GD’s Charles, and family historian Rev James. His second name may be spelled ‘caulfEIld’ - I’ve seen both spellings though the one I am using seems to occur more often.
The Tuckey family’s first medical man was John Tuckey (1711-62) who worked in Dublin. His younger son, Davys Tuckey, married Isabella, daughter of Charles Caulfield of Killyman. The GD member’s father, Charles Caulfield Tuckey, was Davys and Isabella’s eldest son. Charles Caulfield Tuckey followed his grandfather into the medical profession, qualifying in Dublin. He began his working life in Ireland in the 1840s, at Castletown Roche Dispensary but soon moved to England.
By the time the first issues of the Medical Directory were published, in the mid-1850s, Charles Caulfield Tuckey was working as a GP in Canterbury, and that’s where Charles the GD member grew up. There’s never any mention in the Medical Directory entries, however, of his long association with homoeopathy, details of which I found on the sueyounghistories website which specialises in the careers of homoeopathic practitioners. The sueyoung’s account of Charles Caulfield Tuckey doesn’t give dates for when he was working at the Manchester Homoeopathic Hospital and the Homoeopathic Dispensary in Preston; but the early 1850s and possibly the late 1840s seem the most likely period. He was also in private practice as a homoeopath at Bow Lane, Fishergate Hill Preston, using homoeopathy.
Perhaps Charles Caulfield Tuckey continued to dispense homoeopathic cures when in practice in Canterbury. It’s very likely that he did, because - once established in Kent - he was an important figure in the circle of people who set up the London Homoeopathic Hospital in 1858 and ran it thereafter; although he doesn’t seem ever to have been a staff-member. He will have known Dr George Wyld, later a member of the Theosophical Society and friend to many GD members (though he was never in the GD himself); and the Rosher family, financial benefactors and administrators of the London Homoeopathic Hospital (Charles Rosher was a GD member).
The sueyounghistories website mentions one publication by Charles Caulfield Tuckey: A Dialogue on Homoeopathy. The British Library has a copy of it: published in London, 1856.
Rev James Tuckey’s family pedigree, seen online at www.corkpastandpresent.ie. It’s a reproduction of the original article which was published in the Journal of the Cork Historical and Archaeological Society, issue of 1919.
Website sueyounghistories.com - entry for Charles Caulfield Tuckey and note the Tuckey heraldic shield. See also the entry for George Wyld.
There’s an obituary of Charles Caulfield Tuckey in the British Homoeopathic Journal 1895. I haven’t been able to run a copy of this to earth so far (June 2016) but I imagine the sueyoung’s website got its details of his homoeopathic involvement from it.
The British Homoeopathic Review volume 3 1859 p17, p329.
The delightfully-entitled Some Local and General Excrescences of Homoeopathy 1858 by John Fitzgibbon Geary: p5 and just noting here that the Duke of Wellington was a supporter of homoeopathy.
Monthly Homoeopathic Review 1882 p298, p304, p370.
Annals of the British Homoeopathic Society and of the London Homoeopathic Hospital 1885. This was a google snippet so I couldn’t see the page number.
Journal of the British Homoeopathic Society volume 3 1895 pxviii in a list, probably of members, with a date, probably their date of election: Dr Charles Caulfield Tuckey AB MB Dublin LRCSI; of Charleville Kew; with the date 1855.
North American Journal of Homoeopathy volume 43 1895 p376 a note of Charles Caulfield Tuckey’s death.
The Royal Homoeopathic Hospital Great Ormond St London 1849-1949 printed for the hospital by Maxwell Love and Co of NI: p21: H Rosher was the hospital’s treasurer 1859-80; and beginning p22 a list of senior staff members, which includes Charles Tuckey the GD member, but not his father.
The medical directories. Like Who’s Who, they are dependant on information sent in by the doctors who are listed in them; so it must have been a choice of Charles Caulfield Tuckey not to tell the compilers that he used homoeopathy. The earliest ever issue of the Medical Directory was in 1846 and covered London only. By 1850 doctors practising in the English provinces (including Wales), or abroad with the forces, were listed but there was still no coverage of Scotland or Ireland.
Medical Directory 1855 was the first one in which there was an entry for Charles Caulfield Tuckey. In the ‘Provinces’ section p442 at Canterbury; though with no full address, suggesting he hadn’t been in the town for very long. AB and MB Dublin 1841. LRCS Ireland 1840. Licensed to practice midwifery Dublin 1839.
Medical Directory 1860 p809 in Canterbury at 1 St Margaret’s St.
In the issue Medical Directory 1866 p538 there was a change of address within Canterbury, to 4 St Dunstan’s Court. Then all the details are the same until the mid-1870s when he isn’t listed at all.
Pamphlets on Biology: Rofoid Collection volume 279 1876 p24 Charles Caulfield Tuckey was working with fever patients at Bantry Hospital.
Around 1880 he returned to England:
Medical Directory 1881 p742 lists Charles Caulfield Tuckey at the house called Charleville in Kew. No street name was given.
Medical Directory 1882 p753 he was listed with the Kew address; but as retired, and I presume he didn’t ever practice medicine in Kew.
Medical Directory 1896 volume 2 p1820 in its list of practitioners who had died since the last issue.
CHARLES AND ELIZABETH TUCKEY
Charles Caulfield Tuckey was married twice. In 1843, in Doneraile county Cork, he married Elizabeth, daughter of William Lloyd of Limerick and his wife Jane. They had six children: a son Charles who was probably born in Ireland (as I haven’t found any record of him) and who died in childhood; Janet, born in 1844 in Ireland and probably the eldest of them; Isabel, also born in Ireland in 1850; Deborah who was born in Preston in 1852; a second son named Charles - the GD member, Charles William Lloyd Tuckey, born in 1854 just after the family settled in Canterbury; and James the family history compiler, born 1864.
By census day 1861 the original son called Charles had died, and the birth of James the youngest child was three years ahead. The rest of the family were at 4 St Dunstan’s Street in central Canterbury where they were probably living above Charles Caulfield Tuckey’s consulting rooms. The family consisted of Charles Caulfield; his wife Elizabeth (Eliza on the census entry); Janet, mis-named ‘jane’ on the census entry; Isabel; Deborah, known as Dibby, perhaps the sister the GD member was closest to; and Charles the future GD member. Elizabeth Tuckey was keeping house with a cook and a housemaid; if Charles Caulfield Tuckey employed anyone in his medical practice, they were not living with the family.
1861 was the only time Charles Lloyd Tuckey the GD member was living with his parents, in England, on census day. In 1871 the Tuckeys were not in the UK at all; they were probably in Ireland, visiting relations. And by 1881 there had been many changes in the family. By far the biggest of those changes was the death of Elizabeth Tuckey, in Canterbury early in 1875. Charles Caulfield Tuckey gave up his practice in Canterbury very soon afterwards and went to work in Ireland for a while. He remarried quickly as well, just a year after he’d been widowed. His second wife was Susanna Love (or SusannaH - the sources are undecided on the correct spelling). Charles Caulfield retired around 1880, and he and Susanna set up home in Kew, in a house called Charleville. Charles Caulfield Tuckey continued to live there until his death in February 1895; and Susanna until her death in September 1899.
When Charles Caulfield Tuckey died, he left a tidy sum - more than £21000 in personal estate alone. Charles the GD member and his brother the Rev James were the elder Charles’ executors. Relations between the elder Charles’ children and their step-mother Susanna, seem to have been good and Charles the GD member was named as Susanna’s executor, Rev James being in South Africa at the time of her death.
Sources: census 1891; probate registrations 1895, 1899.
Rev James Tuckey’s family pedigree, seen online at www.corkpastandpresent.ie, originally published in the Journal of the Cork Historical and Archaeological Society, issue of 1919.
Familysearch Ireland-ODM GS film number 0897422 IT 5: baptism of Elizabeth Lloyd 18 July 1821 at St Michael Limerick. Parents: William Lloyd and wife Jane. I tried looking for a baptism record for Charles Caulfield Tuckey at Familysearch, but couldn’t find one. I also couldn’t find any records of the baptisms in Ireland of Charles and Elizabeth’s daughters Janet and Isabel.
Familysearch Ireland-ODM GS film number 962669: marr of Charles Caulfield (sic) Tuckey to Elizabeth Lloyd 9 November 1843 in Doneraile co Cork.
Familysearch also had a series of tax assessments for Charles Caulfield Tuckey, resident of Canterbury. The earliest in the series was for tax year 1862/63; the latest was for 1874/75.
Familysearch Ireland Calendar of Wills and Administrations 1858-1920 GS film number 100978 image number 00395 named Charles Caulfield Tuckey as a beneficiary of a Will where probate was granted in Guernsey on 17 May 1876. I couldn’t see whose Will this was, but Elizabeth Tuckey was the most likely person.
CHARLES TUCKEY’S EDUCATION
Both Charles and his brother James went to King’s School in Canterbury.
The Lancet 1925 volume 2 p411 issue of 22 August 1925: obituary of Charles Lloyd Tuckey. Who Was Who 1941-50 p1168 entry for Rev James Grove White Tuckey.
Charles Tuckey the GD member followed his father and great-grandfather into the medical profession. He began his training at King’s College London and then moved to Aberdeen University. His mother’s death, early in 1875, came a few months before he took his MB CM exams. He qualified MD, also at Aberdeen University, in 1884.
Charles was like his father, in being prepared to use cures that were unorthodox and frowned on by the powers-that-be in the medical profession. The earliest job I’ve found for him was as a medical officer at the Royal Homoeopathic Hospital. He worked there from 1878 to 1884. It was an honorary appointment, but the hospital did have a hierarchy up which the doctors could progress. Charles began his working life there as assistant physician; by the time he left, he’d been promoted to physician. He also acted as the hospital’s honorary secretary in 1883 and 1884, when it was raising money for a purpose-built hospital.
Charles only ever had one other job working in a hospital - from around 1890 to 1894 he was visiting physician at the Margaret Street Infirmary for Consumption. This too was an unpaid appointment. Charles earned his keep as most doctors did at the time, from treating private patients.
Charles first set up his private practice in 1878 at 21 Henrietta Street, off Cavendish Square and at that stage and for several years more he was in general practice. He always lived in rooms above his consulting rooms. He moved several times. From 1884 to 1899 - the years of his greatest interest in the occult - he was living and in practice at 14 Green Street. In 1899 he went to 88 Park Street. He was still at Park Street in 1910 but by 1915 had moved again, to 47 Upper Brook Street. This was his last address as a practitioner: he retired in 1917 and left London. The houses Charles chose were all in the Mayfair/Oxford Street area, wherein lived the kind of person who could afford the prices he would have been charging for his private therapy sessions. On the day of the 1901 census, Charles had his unmarried sister Janet keeping house for him at 88 Park Street. She was running the household with the help of a cook and a housemaid. It’s possible that Charles’ sister Deborah had been living with him for the past year or two; but on census day she was visiting friends, and later in 1901 she got married. For more on Janet and Deborah, see the FAMILY sections below.
Charles’ interest in the occult suggested he saw the importance of the mind in the health and illness of the body. A need for some kind of evidence as to how the link worked became especially necessary to Charles when he decided to try using hypnosis on some of his patients. In 1888, he spent several weeks at Nancy and a couple more in Amsterdam, learning the technique used by Professor Liébault, who was well-known in Europe (though not so well-known in Britain) for his use of hypnosis as a treatment; and studying how it worked in general practice. In one of his published articles he mentions having also been to hospitals in Paris to see hypnosis used on mental patients; he doesn’t say when he made this visit, but 1888 seems a likely date.
After this period learning the basics of hypnotherapy and being convinced that in the right circumstances, it could work, Charles gave up his own general practice and from that time until his own ill-health forced him to give up work, used hypnotherapy to treat the kind of health problems orthodox medicine still struggles with - addiction to drugs and alcohol, neurasthenia, depression, psychosis. Evidence he gave at an inquest in 1910 shows that he also used other alternative approaches to these difficult problems; and sometimes sent his patients to practitioners specialising in alternatives he wasn’t an expert in.
Charles became widely known for his use of hypnotism as a treatment for chronic medical conditions. I only have statistics for his work with alcoholism, not for any other problem that his patients brought to him. Between 1897 and 1909 he treated 200 patients for chronic alcoholism. In one-third of those cases, treatment with hypnotherapy had led to a complete cure. That doesn’t seem a particularly good success rate to me; but then alcoholism is particularly difficult to treat and perhaps other treatments available at that time did no better.
It mattered to Charles that hypnotherapy should be accepted by the medical profession as a useful technique, in the proper circumstances. He defended it with letters and articles published in the Lancet, whose editorial attitude reflected the hostility of many British doctors to the use of it, especially in the 1880s and 1890s. He gave talks to other doctors; sent articles to magazines for the general reader; and wrote what became (at least during his lifetime) the standard work on the subject, Psycho-therapeutics (for more on that, see the PUBLICATIONS section below).
I’m assuming Janet Tuckey, and possibly Deborah too, moved in with Charles when their step-mother died in 1899 and the house at Kew was given up. By the time Janet died (in 1908) she had left London - probably for health reasons - and on the day of the 1911 census Charles had no family members living with him. He was employing a cook/housekeeper, rather than a woman who just cooked; and a house/parlourmaid. The housekeeper will have carried out a lot of the household management being done by Janet in 1901.
Charles made one more house-move - to 47 Upper Brook Street - before the first World War. When he married Beatrice Wood Marsland, in 1915, she must have come to live with him there. In 1917, however, Charles retired from practice, and they moved to Beatrice’s house in Eastbourne. I couldn’t find any evidence that Charles had done medical work as part of the war effort. This was probably not to do with any lack of willingness on his part, but because of the illness that forced him to give up his work.
Charles’ consultations were, of course, between him, the patient, and the third person Charles insisted should be present while the patient was undergoing hypnosis treatment. Although he wrote up some cases for publication, the patients were always anonymous. However, two of his patients’ names are known: one sad case became public during Charles’ lifetime; the other one’s diary was published many years later.
Alice James was the sister of William James the psychologist and Henry James the novelist. By late 1890, copies of Psycho-Therapeutics were available in the USA and one was read by William James. A year later, Alice was dying of breast cancer after a lifetime of ill-health. Describing Charles’ book as “very creditable”, William wrote to Alice (who was living in London) to suggest that she call Charles in, to see if hypnosis could help control the pain, and let her sleep. As Alice was so ill, Charles went to her lodgings rather than have her come to him. He called several times between December 1891 and March 1892, using his hypnotherapy technique on Alice and also teaching her nurse, Katharine Loring, how to use it. The sessions were unsuccessful - they didn’t relieve the pain and Alice went back to using morphia - and a few days after the last of them, she died.
HENRY BROOKS BROADHURST
Mr Broadhurst had only been a patient of Charles for a week when he committed suicide in Charles’ house in Park Street. He had experienced periods of mental illness before, and had tried a number of different cures; when Charles met him he had been ill for three years. A week before his death, Charles and Mr Broadhurst’s previous doctor, Robert Dundas Helm, had got together and agreed a programme of treatment for him. The programme was to begin with two other forms of therapy: a treatment with electricity (I wonder how that worked) and sessions of massage. Charles offered to have Mr Broadhurst staying in his house, at least at the outset of the programme, and treatment began at once. Charles was clearly very worried about the man’s mental state and I imagine he was thinking that the case illustrated a problem he came up against all too often with new patients: that they had come to him very late in the day. In several of his published works Charles emphasised that hypnotherapy, like any treatment, was most effective if used as soon as possible after the symptoms appeared.
Charles didn’t do electro-therapy himself, so he and Dr Helm took Mr Broadhurst to a colleague, Dr Sayer, for that session. Charles himself, or someone who worked for him, did the only massage Mr Broadhurst was given before his death. After those two treatments, Charles then discussed with Mr Broadhurst the possibility of some hypnotherapy sessions. Mr Broadhurst resisted the idea so Charles left him to think it over, hoping he’d feel more positively towards it in a few days. As a result, Mr Broadhurst had not actually had any hypnotherapy when he locked himself in his room one afternoon and shot himself through the head. Charles told the inquest that though Mr Broadhurst was suffering from “aggravated neurasthenia”, he hadn’t seemed delusional or suicidal in the short time he had been his patient.
It’s a pity that the two patients whose names we now know, have to be classed as amongst Charles’ failures. Charles found it very difficult to live with the failure of hypnotherapy to help people who needed help so badly: for example, the 200 alcoholics, of whom Charles managed to cure only 60 or so. He once told a young colleague that he found it very “trying” to spend so much time with people who were mentally unstable. I imagine that on days like the day Mr Broadhurst killed himself, it was a lot more than ‘trying’.
Update February 2017: Gordon Bates has just alerted me to a book which sounds like a good introduction to the work of Tuckey and his fellow psycho-therapists. Philip Kuhn’s Psychoanalysis in Britain 1893-1913: History and Historiography has just been published by Lexington Books.
The Lancet 1925 volume 2 p411 issue of 22 August 1925: obituary of Charles Lloyd Tuckey though with no mention of his work at the London Homoeopathic Hospital.
The Royal Homoeopathic Hospital Great Ormond St London 1849-1949 printed for the hospital by Maxwell Love and Co of NI: p22 et seq for the list of the Hospital’s honorary medical and surgical officers; including George Wyld of the Theosophical Society 1852-60 and Charles Lloyd Tuckey 1878-84. Charles’ father is not in the list.
The Monthly Homoeopathic Review 1882 p532.
The Monthly Homoeopathic Review 1883 p373.
The Monthly Homoeopathic Review volume 28 1884 p364; p753 report on a fund-raising meeting at which Charles Tuckey was present as honorary secretary; and a Mr H Rosher - a relation of GD member Charles Rosher - as Treasurer.
Other medical references; although Charles’ work in homoeopathy is not mentioned in them:
Medical Times and Gazette 1875 volume 2 issue of 14 August 1875 p200.News:
General Medical Council Registers 1883 to 1925.
Medical Times and Gazette 1884 volume 1 issue of 26 April 1884 p582.
Kelly’s Post Office Directory 1884 trades directory p1806 under physicians: Charles Lloyd Tuckey is at 14 Green Street Grosvenor Square. While other doctors listed here did mention that they used homoeopathy, Charles chose not to do so.
Kelly’s Post Office Directory 1891 street directory p379 at 14 Green Street Mayfair. I looked here to see if the house was divided into flats. It wasn’t, so Charles was the sole householder.
Kelly’s Post Office Directory 1895 street directory p402 for Green Street and p580 for Park Street. I wasn’t able to work out exactly when he moved: no numbers on Green Street between 8 and 19 were listed; and 88 Park Street was divided into apartments with only one resident listed.
Kelly’s Post Office Directory 1899 trades directory physicians p2262 Charles Lloyd Tuckey was at 88 Park Street by this time.
Medical Directory 1910 volume 1 London p340.
Medical Directory 1915 issue London list p359 Charles Lloyd Tuckey now at 47 Upper Brook Street.
Medical Directory 1917 Charles Lloyd Tuckey is still listed in the London section.
Medical Directory 1918 volume 1 p1062 as “retired”; current address Ingarsby, Silverdale Road Eastbourne.
His use of hypnotherapy: see the PUBLICATIONS section below.
For the number of alcoholism cases Charles treated:
Everybody’s Magazine volume 20 1909 p537: not an article, but a letter by Charles: The Power of Suggestion.
In the Lancet, often showing what Charles was up against:
Lancet 1888 volume 1 January-June p1110 issue of 2 June 1888: use of hypnotism as an anaesthetic at Vienna General Hospital. The Lancet’s view was that use of hypnotism too regularly on any one patient “produces in the majority of cases a marked psychical feebleness”.
Lancet 1888 volume 2 July-December p985 issue of 17 November 1888: its use in cases of “hysteria” had been discussed at a meeting of the Neurological Section of the New York Academy of Medicine.
Lancet 1889 volume 2 issue of 12 October 1889 letter from Charles, written London 8 October 1889. The formation of a Hypnotic Society was being suggested. Charles felt that an attempt to found such a society in England wouldn’t be successful. He noted that practitioners in Europe - where hypnotherapy was an accepted medical treatment - weren’t aware of the prejudice of many British doctors against it.
Lancet 1890 volume 1 January-June p771 issue of 5 April 1890: Dr Milne Bramwell of Goole had demonstrated hypnosis to a group of doctors, on patients at a dentist’s surgery in Leeds.
Lancet 1890 volume 2 July-December p379 issue of 16 August 1890, in the journal’s report on that year’s British Medical Association conference. The Lancet mentioned in passing that the use of hypnosis had been discussed at the conference; but did not give details of what had been said.
Lancet 1891 volume 2 July-December p1024 issue of 31 October 1891: letter from Charles written Grosvenor Square 27 October 1891 grumbling about a “hypnotic séance at the Aquarium” due to be given by the visiting American, Professor Germane. Charles was particularly annoyed at a publicity leaflet he’d been sent, in which named members of medical profession were listed as having lent the séance their support; so soon after the BMA had denounced just this use of hypnosis as entertainment. One of the doctors lending his support to the seance was named by Charles as “Dr Wynn Westcott” - head not only of the GD but also of Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia. It’s very clear from the letter that Charles despaired of ever getting British doctors to accept hypnotherapy, if this was the attitude they took to it.
Lancet 1892 volume 1 January-June p1304 issue of 11 June 1892: review of George C Kingsbury’s The Practice of Hypnotic Suggestion. The Lancet’s attitude was overtly hostile, although the prejudice of the (anonymous) reviewer against hypnotherapy seems to have been partly on the grounds that it was something widely used in Europe.
Lancet 1892 volume 2 July-December p803 issue of 25 September 1892 printed a letter from Charles, defending hypnotherapy against an attack by William Dale. Dale had been responding in his turn to an article by a Dr Robertson recently published in the Lancet under the title Charles had probably invented - Psycho-Therapeutics.
From 1893 there was less coverage of hypnotism in the Lancet - its editors obviously thought the subject had had its day in the sun. If Charles sent letters to the magazine or gave talks on the hypnotherapy to meetings of medical societies, the Lancet didn’t publish them. He only reappears once more in 1910:
Lancet 1910 volume 2 July-December p1765 issue of 17 December 1910 coverage of the anaesthetics section at a big meeting of the Medical Society of London; in which Charles took part and several papers on the use hypnotism as an anaesthetic were read. Just noting, here, that the inquest on Mr Broadhurst wasn’t covered at all in the Lancet. Perhaps that is some indication of a change in their attitude towards hypnosis. It’s more likely, though, that they didn’t want to give the incident any more publicity than it was already getting; as bringing the medical profession into disrepute.
Alice’s ill-health - which contemporary doctors were unable to identify, let alone cure - is well documented in letters and diaries etc within James family. It has also been the subject of several case studies since.
The Correspondence of William James volume 7 (of 8) 1890-94. Editors Ignas K Skrupskelis and Elizabeth M Berkeley with Wilma Bradbeer. Charlottesville and London: University Press of Virginia 1999 p114, p115 footnote 6; p586.
The Diary of Alice James originally published in the US as Alice James: Her Brothers and Her Journal; 1934 by Dodd Mead and Co. This edition: Penguin American Library 1982, editor Leon Edel’s. Edel’s copyright for his introduction is dated 1964 but even at this pre-feminism stage he was suggesting that Alice’s ailments were a physical expression of her rage and frustration at the kind of limited and unchallenging life her family expected her to lead. In the 1892 Penguin edition: pvii; introduction p2-8; p14-16; and diary p221-222, p229-231.
Modern assessments of Alice’s case and Charles’ treatment:
Science and the Practice of Medicine in the 19th Century by William Frederick Bynum. Cambridge University Press 1994: p213-217.
The Invention of Telepathy 1870-1901 by Roger Luckhurst. I love the title! Oxford University Press 2002: p239.
At http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/ajp.139.8.1079-a an article on Alice’s hypnotherapy treatment by Jerome M Schneck. Posted online 2006: American Journal of Psychiatry volume 139 number 8 pp1079.
Henry Brooks Broadhurst:
Times 4 October 1910 p3 County Magistrate’s Suicide.
Yes, quite a few, with a concentration around the late 1880s/early 1890s when he was trying to explain and justify hypnotherapy both to doctors and to the public.
However, Charles’ earliest publications were on homoeopathy:
The Monthly Homoeopathic Review 1882 p326 Homoeopathy in Spain. And p532 Case of Obscure Disease of the Stomach.
Homoeopathic World 1882: Sanguinaria in Neuralgia. I haven’t seen a copy of this journal. I found the article mentioned in the Medical Times volumes 9-11 1882 p233 which said that Charles’ arguments were based on out-patients he was treating at the London Homoeopathic Hospital.
Charles’ earliest article on hypnotism was for the general public:
The Nineteenth Century volume XXIV July-December 1888. Editor James Knowles published Kegan Paul Trench and Co. Charles was amongst some very well-known names in publishing in this journal and the readers of his own article will have included many members of the intellectual elite. Other article-writers in 1888 were W E Gladstone (several times); Beatrice Potter (on social issues); Conan Doyle; Lyon Playfair; Francis T Palgrave of the poetry anthologies; Leslie Stephen, editor of the Dictionary of National Biography; Prince Kropotkin the social revolutionary; Algernon Swinburne; Ferdinand Rothschild; and C Villiers Stanford, looking like he doesn’t care for the current worship of all things Wagner.
Charles’ article: pp839-50 CLT: Faith Healing as a Medical Treatment. Pp839-840 are the source for Charles’ training with Liébault at Nancy; and his trip to Amsterdam to see the work of Dr van Renterghem. It also mentions the latest publication by Professor Bernheim of the Faculty of Medicine at Nancy, another proponent of hypnotherapy: De La Suggestion et de ses Applications à la Thérapeutique originally 1880 2nd edition Paris 1887.
The article also shows in Charles a prejudice which he maintained in later works: against the working-classes as weak-minded and too easily influenced by suggestions made to them while they were under hypnosis. He had reservations about hypnotherapy’s ability to treat the middle-classes, whom he saw as more mentally resistent to the technique.
I almost put this in a section on its own, as it was such an important work, both for Charles himself, and in the development of psychology-based approaches to medical treatment. It was on its seventh edition when he died. The reviews of the various editions in the Lancet show how much the book had helped change the attitudes of some at least of the medical profession to the use of hypnotherapy, at least in the right circumstances. It contained one of the first uses, if not the first, of the word ‘psychotherapeutics’. Its second edition was re-issued in 1998 in the Classics in Psychology Series: A Collection of Key Works. And it has frequently been cited as a reference in works on the history of health care.
It was published at exactly the right time, of course.
Charles’ first, modest edition of Psycho-therapeutics was published in mid-1889:
Psycho-therapeutics, or Treatment by Sleep and Suggestion by C Lloyd Tuckey MD. London: Baillière Tindall and Cox 1889. Dedicated to Dr Liébault “in admiration of his genius”.
The basic argument of the book is very simple: that certain illnesses and conditions can be treated by suggestions for how to get cured, made to the patient while they were under hypnosis. This first edition was small in many respects: it was only 80 pages long; it didn’t have much in the way of case studies in it and none by Charles himself; and its print run was so small that the publishers didn’t send a copy to the British Library - the BL’s earliest copy is the 1890 2nd edition.
In the next 35 years, Psycho-therapeutics underwent many alterations, growing and developing with its subject. All editions were published by Baillière Tindall and Cox, who must have been very pleased at the results of the slight risk they took in accepting Charles’ original manuscript.
The 2nd edition of 1890 still kept the original title. It was also no longer, but the print-run was bigger and it was this edition that made it both to the British Library and to the USA, where Alice James’ brother William read it in New England. William was a psychologist.
A third edition was needed by 1892 and this was the first one with the change in title to Psycho-Therapeutics, or Treatment by Hypnotism and Suggestion, rather than ‘sleep and suggestion’; researchers perhaps realising by now that people under hypnosis were not asleep. The book kept the change in title throughout its future editions. This edition was also much longer than the first edition and had more case studies in it including cases Charles had treated himself.
There was a fourth edition in 1900, again enlarged and revised; and a fifth in 1907. The 1907 edition obtained the longest review by the Lancet of any so far: the book was becoming impossible for the Lancet to dismiss. It was the first edition to have an introduction that Charles hadn’t written himself: he had asked Sir Francis Richard Cruise to do it for him.
In 1913 Charles once again went to work on a new edition - the 6th, which was 431 pages long. Sir Francis Cruise’s introduction was kept and a new chapter was added, by Dr Constance Ellen Long, on the relevance to hypnosis of Sigmund Freud’s theories. Charles was making sure his book was keeping bang up-to-date. By now the Lancet was welcoming Psycho-Therapeutics and calling it an “excellent introduction” to the subject and praising both its “lucid and pleasant style” and its “scientific and careful character”. Such a change from 1889! This edition can be read in full at archive.org.
By 1921, Charles’ health was in serious decline, but he was able to produce a seventh edition, with the help of a long-time friend and colleague, Arthur Percy Allan, another physician who used hypnotherapy. Dr Long’s chapter on Freud did not appear, on the grounds that the subject now needed a book of its own; but there was a chapter by Dr Allan on the use of hypnotherapy during World War 1. Charles couldn’t write about that from personal experience and as always, he was careful not to set himself up as an expert on anything outside the range of what he knew. Though the Lancet still held by its original belief that the medical uses of hypnotherapy were limited - something Charles had never disputed - it still welcomed the new edition and even went as far as admitting that psychotherapy was an important technique in modern medicine.
Lancet 1889 volume 2 p75 issue of 13 July 1889: a review of first edition so short and dismissive that it provoked Charles to write in with an article. To give it credit, the Lancet did publish Charles’ response:
Lancet 1889 volume 2 issue of 24 August 1889 pp365-367 Charles’ Cases Treated by Hypnotism and Suggestion.
Much more favourably inclined towards Psycho-Therapeutics was Robert William Felkin, future GD member and founder of Stella Matutina. He was sent a copy of Psycho-Therapeutics’ first edition to cover it for the Edinburgh Medical Journal where he was a regular reviewer. So excited was he by it and a second book on the same subject - Rudolf Heindenhain’s Hypnotism or Animal Magnetism - that he launched into not so much a review as a long and detailed history and defence of the subject which went on through several subsequent issues. I don’t think that Charles and Robert Felkin will have known each other personally at the time; though Charles will have heard of Dr Felkin as one of Britain’s foremost experts on tropical medicine.
Edinburgh Medical Journal volume 35 July 1889 to June 1890 beginning p240 issue of September 1889; last episode in p1036 issue of May 1890.
There was a more orthodox review of the book’s third edition in EMJ volume 37 July 1891-June 1892; issue of March 1892 pp853-854; this review was anonymous. This was also a positive review, noting how much such a book was needed, and welcoming Charles’ additions to the theory of the subject. The reviewer also praised Charles’ use of case studies - 33 taken from the work of European practitioners and 28 from his own practice - saying that they illustrated exactly which kinds of illness hypnotherapy could treat, and which it couldn’t.
The Lancet maintained its dismissive attitude:
Lancet 1892 volume 2 July-December pp777-778 issue of 1 October 1892: three-line review of the 3rd edition.
Lancet 1907 volume 2 July-December issue of 10 August 1907: review of the 5th edition.
Lancet 1913 volume 2 July-December: p1551, a review showing somewhat of a change of heart and including the praise I’ve quoted above. The reviewer noted that Charles’ main alterations were to chapter 7, which was now full of case studies of Charles’ own patients; he no longer needed those of other practitioners.
Lancet 1921 volume 2 July-December p706 issue of 1 October 1921.
Psycho-Therapeutics: modern reissue of its second edition.
Classics in Psychology Series: A Collection of Key Works. 1998, edited and with an introduction by Robert H Wozniak.
I can’t now find where it was that I read that Charles had sent a copy of the Psycho-Therapeutics first edition to the explorer and traveller Sir Richard Burton. See wikipedia for plenty of information on Burton, including evidence which suggests that the two men are most unlikely to have met.
That’s the end of my section on Psycho-Therapeutics. In the next few years, Charles wrote a series of articles on hypnotherapy for a variety of magazines:
Brain: A Journal of Neurology volume XIV published New York and London: Macmillan and Co 1891. It was the official magazine of the Neurological Society of London which - in another sign of the times - had been founded in 1888. On pp539-556 as part of the magazine’s series ‘Critical Digests’: Charles, On Hypnotism. Charles was not a member of the Society. Despite this, the members thought of him as the best person to survey the recent glut of publications on the subject of hypnotism and its uses. He’s not in the members’ list. Some well-known names who were members: Herbert Spencer, and Francis Galton.
THE APPLICATIONS OF HYPNOTISM
The Contemporary Review volume LX July-December 1891; in the issue of November 1891 pp672-86. This article had similar aims to the one Charles had published in the Nineteenth Century. The differences between the two are down to the rather different readership of the two magazines; and to Charles assuming rather more knowledge of the subject amongst his 1891 readers than his 1888 readers are likely to have had. He spent more time, in this article, discussing the various theories about how hypnotism worked and what kind of state, the state of being hypnotised was. And trying to address public anxiety about such questions as the possible loss of free will; whether people could be hypnotised at a distance; and whether the medical profession should have sole control of the technique.
The Value of Hypnosis in Chronic Alcoholism. London: J and A Churchill 1892.
This article first saw the light of day when Charles read a précis of it at the British Medical Association annual conference in 1892, as part of its Psychology set of talks and discussions. The longer article from which the précis was distilled was published as a small pamphlet.
Mention of the talk:
Lancet 1892 volume 2 July-December p383 issue of 13 August 1892.
The Literary World volume 46 1892 p508: review.
Edinburgh Medical Journal volume 38 number 2 January-June 1893 p758-59 issue of June 1893.
The review was anonymous but might have been by Robert Felkin.
A German translation of the pamphlet was published between 1892 and 1901 in the journal Zeitschrift für Hypnotismus. It’s mentioned in Hypnotism or Suggestion and Psychotherapy, by Dr Auguste Forel, formerly professor at the Provincial Lunatic Asylum in Zurich. Translated by H W Armit from 5th German edition and published in London and New York by Rebman Ltd 1906.
Rebman Limited had been founded in London; it had moved to New York only a short time before Armit’s translation of Forel’s book was published. It was a small firm, specialising in medical texts. At least two GD members were involved with it. Hugh Elliott was a shareholder. Robert Felkin’s involvement is not so clear but I think he was probably a shareholder too.
Sources for Elliott and Felkin’s involvement:
Collected Letters of W B Yeats Volume III 1901-04 p328 note 3.
Shadows of Life and Thought: A Retrospective Review in the Form of Memoirs by Arthur Edward Waite. London: Selwyn and Blount of Paternoster House EC 1938 p173-74.
ASSESSMENT OF THE GOLD CURE
Originally published in The Medical Pioneer July 1893 p149. Later reprinted (probably to reach a wider audience) in British Homoeopathic Review volume 38 issue of 1 January 1894 pp19-23: The Rationale of “the Gold Cure”.
Leslie Enraught Keeley’s ‘gold’ treatment for alcoholism was first used in the US in the 1880s but by 1893 there was a clinic in London, and much excitement about it as a cure. As a medical practitioner with experience of treating alcoholics, Charles was asked to assess Keeley’s method. He visited the clinic and was made very welcome there, being allowed to watch, and to interview some of the patients. But when he wrote up his visit for The Medical Pioneer, the fact that he hadn’t been allowed to know what was in the medicine the patients were taking worried him; particularly as the course of treatment was expensive. His own view, stated in the article, was that no one treatment would cure all alcoholics, as alcoholism had so many causes. He was also very frank about disliking the whole idea of Keeley’s cure, because of the secrecy about what was in the medicine, but also because it was “purely...a commercial speculation”. He didn’t dismiss the cure out of hand. However, he suggested (though not in the terms I’m using) that it worked because of a set of essentially psychological factors: the money and time invested in the cure; that there was a medicine and that it was based on an expensive and rare substance; and timely suggestions made by staff and other patients.
See wikipedia for Leslie Enraught Keeley (1836-1900). Analysis from after Keeley’s death found that the medicine used in the Keeley clinics had no gold in it. It did have strychnine in it.
THE PROVINCIAL MEDICAL JOURNAL
Edinburgh Medical Journal New Series volume 1 1897 p636 mentioned an article by Charles which had appeared in Provincial Medical Journal’ December 1894 issue; its subject was how Charles had treated a boy with kleptomania. I haven’t been able to find a copy of the original journal to check out the details.
After 1894, Charles wrote fewer articles and they were mostly shorter too: I expect he was too busy with his patients for much writing.
Edinburgh Medical Journal New Series volume 1 1897 pp635-36 A Case of Mischievous Morbid Impulse in a Child, Treated by Hypnotism
SOME PHASES OF HYPNOTISM
This article has the distinction of being the only one Charles wrote for any esoteric journal. It appeared in the first ever volume of Occult Review, editor Ralph Shirley. Published London: William Rider and Son Ltd, 164 Aldersgate St EC; and Phillip Welby of Henrietta St WC. Volume 1 number 2 issue of February 1905 pp51-56. In this article, Charles set out most succinctly his argument for hypnotism as a phenomenon that could be explained by science - something he was well aware was likely to disappoint this particular group of readers.
NUMBER OF CASES OF ALCOHOLISM
Everybody’s Magazine volume 20 1909 p537: not an article, but a letter by Charles: The Power of Suggestion.
The Practitioner volume 86 1911 part 1 January-June: pp185-192: Treatment of Neurasthenia by Hypnotism and Suggestion. In this article, in a magazine specially for GP’s, Charles emphasised the importance of them sending patients with neurasthenia for treatment as soon as they are diagnosed. Charles had found that one month of active treatment with hypnotherapy was necessary for every year that the patient had been suffering. Not sending a patient for early treatment increased its cost, as well as the likelihood of it failing.
Charles’ article in The Practitioner was the last short work I know of, though in 1911 two more large and complex revisions of Psycho-Therapeutics were still ahead of him.
It’s clear from the marriages of Charles’ sisters, that even after Charles and Elizabeth Tuckey moved to England, they kept in touch with a wide range of relations - geographically and otherwise. So I include here some details of what happened to Charles’ siblings.
I’ve speculated that Janet was the eldest of Charles’ siblings. She was born in Ireland in 1844. She published some poetry and a book on Joan of Arc, and was one of several contributors to A Dictionary of Employments Open to Women, compiled for the Women’s Institute in 1898. On the day of the 1891 census, she was proud to tell the census official that she had an occupation - though I don’t suppose it brought in all that much of an income: the official wrote down on the census form that she was an “Authoress”. On census day 1891 she and her sister Deborah were living with their father and step-mother at the house called Charleville, in New Garden Road Kew; and I suppose that both sisters continued to live with Susanna until her death in 1899. I’ve mentioned above that it’s possible both of them then went to live with Charles, at least for a year or two. Janet died in July 1908 while staying at Ventnor on the Isle of Wight; but her permanent address by that time was in Caterham. She never married.
Both Isabel and Deborah Tuckey married men who were distantly related to them - both their husbands appear in Rev James Tuckey’s family history. Isabel was born in Ireland about 1850. In 1881 she married James Grove White Crofts of the Crofts family of Churchtown. James Crofts had qualified as a surgeon in Ireland in 1878. He had joined the Royal Army Medical Corps and at the time of the marriage, was due to be sent out to India. While he was married to Isabel he was stationed at Faizabad in the North West Provinces of India. Isabel went to India with him and died at Ranikhet, in the foothills of the Himalayas, in April 1886. She had no children. James Crofts married again many years later and had a daughter. He died in 1901, aged 44.
Deborah was born in 1852 when the Tuckeys were living in Preston. Like Janet, she was still living with her father and step-mother on census day 1891. I’ve speculated that after Susanna Tuckey’s death she went with Janet to live with Charles, but I can’t say for sure because on census day 1901 she was staying the night with Robert Wood Marsland and his wife Frances; friends of the Tuckey family. Robert and Frances’ daughter Beatrice was about Deborah’s age; perhaps they in particular were friends. Many years later, Charles married Beatrice.
Later in 1901, aged 48, Deborah married her distant kinsman Rev Freeman Wills Crofts Gason, a widower with grown-up children. Rev Freeman Gason was vicar of Maynooth, county Kildare. Deborah lived with him in Ireland until his death in 1917. She then returned to England and set up home in Sharnbrook Bedfordshire, where she died in 1924.
The Golden Age mystery writer Freeman Wills Crofts must be related to Deborah’s husband; though I couldn’t figure out quite how. He was creator of the detective Inspector French, and a series of crime stories involving railway-timetable alibis.
REV JAMES GROVE WHITE TUCKEY
Rev James Tuckey is the only one of Charles Tuckey’s siblings who is in Who Was Who. He was the youngest of the five surviving children by a decade, born in 1864 in Canterbury. After school at King’s College Canterbury he went to Trinity College Oxford and then studied at Heidelberg University. After several years teaching at Durham University and in Newcastle-upon-Tyne, he joined the army as a regimental chaplain in August 1895. In 1896 he married Emily, daughter of the late George Mason of Manchester; not someone who appears elsewhere on the Tuckey pedigree!
Rev James was with his regiment being besieged at Ladysmith from November 1899 to February 1900 - a very worrying time for his family. He also served at the front in World War I. He was mentioned in despatches several times and after the World War had finished was honoured by appointments as honorary chaplain to George V and to the bishop of Salisbury. He was still in South Africa on census day 1901 and was also abroad on census day 1911.
It was between 1916 and 1919, while he was working as assistant chaplain, general Southern Command, that Rev James compiled the history of the Tuckey family and its ramifications on which I’ve relied so heavily in this account of his brother’s life. He left the army in 1923. He was appointed rural dean of Ripon in 1927 and remained in-post until his retirement in 1930. He died in 1947.
Like his brother Rev James, Charles did not marry someone who figured in Rev James’ Tuckey family history. However, he did marry a woman that his family had known for many years; at least from the time his father went to live in Kew, if not from much earlier, when Charles Caulfield Tuckey and Elizabeth had been living in Lancashire.
Beatrice Wood Marsland was the daughter of Robert Marsland. Robert Marsland had been born in Halifax and had started his career as a solicitor in the family firm G and R W Marsland of John Dalton Street in Manchester. However, by the time of Beatrice’s birth in 1867, he had moved to London and set up in business on his own account in St Swithin’s Lane, City of London. By 1901 he had retired and was living with his wife Frances, Beatrice and his son Reginald at 266 Kew Road Richmond, where they kept house in good style with a cook, a parlourmaid and a housemaid. This was the census day on which Deborah Tuckey was visiting them.
Robert Wood Marsland died later in 1901 and his widow and children moved out of London. On the day of the 1911 census Frances Wood Marsland was living at Ingarsby, Silverdale Road, Eastbourne; though she later moved again, to Bournemouth. Still living with their mother were Beatrice, now 43, and Reginald, now 37. The family was still able to employ a cook, parlourmaid and housemaid.
Charles Tuckey and Beatrice Wood Marsland married in Eastbourne in December 1915. She was 48; he was 61 and may already have had some symptoms of the illness he eventually died of. Charles’ obituaries mention the illness but say very little about its symptoms; only that it involved a gradual loss of physical though not mental ability, and that in Charles’ last years he needed an increasing amount of nursing care, which Beatrice undertook. Charles may have been planning to retire in any case, but the illness may have hurried this on: 1917 was the last year he appeared in the Medical Directory at the London address and still in practice. By 1918, he had retired, though he was still listed in the directory, at the house in Eastbourne where Beatrice and her mother were living in 1911. For a few years he was still able to attend meetings of the Society of Psychical Research; but between 1917 and 1922 he resigned from the committees he was on, and after 1922 was too ill to make the trip to London.
British Library catalogue has these publications:
1874 Told Near Windsor (A Poem). Gypsy and Eng. 14pp. London: Trübner and Co.
1875 as “contributor” to English Gipsy (sic) Songs. In Romanny (sic) with Metrical Translations. The catalogue gives author as Charles Godfrey Leland (1824-1903) as the book’s author; with Janet and an E H Palmer as contributors. London: no publishing firm so it was probably privately printed. I suggest that the contributions of Janet Tuckey and E H Palmer were to render into English metre some accurate but not poetic translations from the original Romany.
1880 Joan of Arc. “The Maid”. The catalogue doesn’t give a publishing firm so again it was privately printed.
1898 A Dictionary of Employments Open to Women by Mrs Leonora Philipps as main author; with assistants Miss Marian Edwardes, Miss Janet Tuckey and Miss Katharine Esther Dixon. London: Women’s Institute.
Probate Registry 1908. Deborah and Rev James were her executors.
Burke’s Landed Gentry of Ireland 1886 edition: The Crofts of Churchtown. Some members of the Crofts family are also online at thepeerage.com: James Grove White Crofts is the youngest son of Wills George Crofts and Elizabeth née Grove White (1824-92).
Bengal Directory 1884 p1104, p625. On p785 is the listing for the settlement of Ranikhet. There were very few permanent British residents but the village was the site of a military sanatorium.
Medical Directory 1885 p1339 and in issues of 1890 vol 2 p1528; 1895 vol 2 p1648; 1900 p1867. All issues gave the same information about where and when Dr Crofts had qualified; but no indication of where in India he was working.
Thacker’s Indian Directory 1885 volume 1 p547, volume 2 p1082
Thacker’s Indian Directory 1886 p1130.
Probate Registry 1887.
Thacker’s Indian Directory 1887 p1196.
Lancet 1900 p547 James Grove White Crofts’ promotion to Lieutenant-Colonel.
Probate Registry 1901
British Medical Journal 1901 p683 very short obituary.
Beware! Deborah’s husband was one of three men (maybe more) with exactly the same name!
Some details of Deborah’s husband at www.thepeerage.com,
Probate Registry 1924.
REV JAMES GROVE WHITE TUCKEY
Oxford University Gazette volume 14 1884 p56.
The British Library has one item by him: The Amphioxus and its Development originally written in German by Berthold Hatschek. Rev James as translator. London: Sonnenschein and Co 1893.
Wikipedia for the Siege of Ladysmith: 2 November 1899 to 28 February 1900.
Hart’s Annual Army List issue 1901 p396 Rev James is in it with a date of August 1895 which I’m assuming was the date of his first commission.
London Gazette 1918 but this was a google snippet so I couldn’t see the full date: p6515 in King’s Birthday honours.
The Durham University Journal 1966 p26
Probate Registry 1948.
Who Was Who 1941-50 p1168.
ROBERT WOOD MARSLAND
London Gazette 9 July 1861 p2853.
London Gazette 30 April 1869 p2580.
London Gazette 4 May 1880 p2896.
Probate Registry 1924; entry for the death of Frances Elizabeth Marsland indicates she was living at Walden, Cromer Road Bournemouth.
Charles Tuckey died in August 1925, at Eastbourne. Beatrice remained in Eastbourne and died in 1950.
Probate Registry 1925, 1951.
The Lancet 1925 volume 2 p411 issue of 22 August 1925: obituary of Charles Lloyd Tuckey, very complimentary about his Psycho-Therapeutics.
BASIC SOURCES I USED for all Golden Dawn members.
Membership of the Golden Dawn: The Golden Dawn Companion by R A Gilbert. Northampton: The Aquarian Press 1986. Between pages 125 and 175, Gilbert lists the names, initiation dates and addresses of all those people who became members of the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn or its many daughter Orders between 1888 and 1914. The list is based on the Golden Dawn’s administrative records and its Members’ Roll - the large piece of parchment on which all new members signed their name at their initiation. All this information had been inherited by Gilbert but it’s now in the Freemasons’ Library at the United Grand Lodge of England building on Great Queen Street Covent Garden. Please note, though, that the records of the Amen-Ra Temple in Edinburgh were destroyed in 1900/01. I have recently (July 2014) discovered that some records of the Horus Temple at Bradford have survived, though most have not; however those that have survived are not yet accessible to the public.
For the history of the GD during the 1890s I usually use Ellic Howe’s The Magicians of the Golden Dawn: A Documentary History of a Magical Order 1887-1923. Published Routledge and Kegan Paul 1972. Foreword by Gerald Yorke. Howe is a historian of printing rather than of magic; he also makes no claims to be a magician himself, or even an occultist. He has no axe to grind.
Family history: freebmd; ancestry.co.uk (census and probate); findmypast.co.uk; familysearch; Burke’s Peerage and Baronetage; Burke’s Landed Gentry; Armorial Families; thepeerage.com; and a wide variety of family trees on the web.
Famous-people sources: mostly about men, of course, but very useful even for the female members of GD. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Who Was Who. Times Digital Archive.
Useful source for business and legal information: London Gazette and its Scottish counterpart Edinburgh Gazette. Now easy to find (with the right search information) on the web.
Catalogues: British Library; Freemasons’ Library.
Wikipedia; Google; Google Books - my three best resources. I also used other web pages, but with some caution, as - from the historian’s point of view - they vary in quality a great deal.
Copyright SALLY DAVIS
Find the web pages of Roger Wright and Sally Davis, including my list of people initiated into the Order of the Golden Dawn between 1888 and 1901, at: